GNSS GLONASS WEAK SIGNAL ACQUISITION ALGORITHM
- V. Krinitski
The paper describes the algorithm for weak GNSS signal acquisition and presents the results of mathematical modeling of the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: GLONASS, GNSS, digital signal processing, signal acquisition.
RADIO BEACON INSTRUMENT CATHEGORY II APPROACH SYSTEM FOR DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL UNF RANGE WAVE PRMG-UHF
- A. Ershov, V. M. Korol, Y. T. Krivoruchko, M. D. Maksimenko, V. M. Perelomov, E. A. Sinitsyn, Y. G. Shatrakov
The article describes structure and new possibility of landing radio beacon group for instrument approach aircrafts, called PRMG.
Keywords: complex stend of testing, distance radio beacon, differential mode, equipment data link, glide radio beacon, GLONASS/ GPS, localizer radio beacon.
THE PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
OF THE RADIONAVIGATION TECHNICAL AIDS
Yu. A. Soloviev, V. M. Tsarev
The paper reviews the present status and principal development areas in the radionavigation technical aids. Characteristics of satellite and terrestrial radionavigation systems in governmental radionavigation plans are analyzed, the development of navigation user requirements possible challenges in providing resilient navigation support and trends in development of radionavigation technologies.
Keywords: BeiDou, Galileo, GBAS, GLONASS, GNSS, GPS, IFRNS, radionavigation system, satellite radionavigation system, SBAS.
URGENT ISSUES IN INPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT “ERA-GLONASS”
- V. Dyachenko, I. A. Efimov
Besides combined statements in «ERA-GLONASS» integration with «system-112», basic functions of on-board communication stations are described in the article.
Keywords: GLONASS, «ERA-GLONASS», «System-112»; traffic accidents; data systems.
№ 2 2017
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VARIOUS IMPLEMENTATIONS OF GNSS RECEIVER FOR HIGH DYNAMIC OBJECTS AT LOW SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIOS
- Y. Karpinskiy, V. A. Ognev
Performance of a GNSS receiver at low signal-to-noise ratios depends on the tracking loops design. GNNS receiver with conventional tracking schemes (see [1–3]) onboard of high-dynamic object can determine navigation parameters at a minimum signal-to-noise ratio of 30 dBHz. The new architecture of tracking loops proposed in the article makes it possible to ensure the operation of the GNSS receiver at a lower signal to noise ratio (down to 22 dBHz). With this technique a small position error is achieved (6 m at a confidence level of 95%). The article reveals the factors that determine the minimum signal-to-noise ratio at which the receiver can track GNSS signals, presents the results of an experimental evaluation of the GNSS receiver performance at low signal-to-noise ratios, gives recommendations for the development of GNNS receiver for high dynamic platforms.
Keywords: GNSS-receiver, high dynamic object, satellite navigation, signal-to-noise ratio.
PERFORMANCE A PRIORY EVALUATION TECHNIQUES FOR GLONASS SDCM
- G. Bystrakov, Yu. A. Soloviev, D. A. Ustiuzhanin
The paper describes methodological aspects of a priory evaluation of the GLONASS system differential correction monitoring performance. Evaluation is carried out by modelling navigation satellites» motion and calculation of relevant
accuracy and availability characteristics with account of pseudo-range residual errors specified by the ICAO.
Keywords: accuracy, a priory evaluation, availability, GLONASS, GNSS, GPS, integrity, navigation satellite, performance, SDCM.
FAULT-TOLERANT NAVIGATION COMPLEX FOR AN AUTOMATIC UNINHABITED UNDERWATER VEHICLE
- S. Amiragov, D. A. Antonov, K. K. Veremeenko, M. V. Zharkov, A. N. Pronkin, E. L. Chehov
An automatic unmanned underwater vehicle (AUUV) intended for work at depths of up to 600 m is briefly described. The article presents AUUV concept and test results. Based on the results of the tests an updated structure of complex information interaction was proposed and new AUUV navigation elements placement scheme was designed.
Keywords: automatic, automatic unmanned underwater vehicle, complex, concept, navigation, structure, underwater vehicle.
XXI CENTURY – NAVIGATION AT SEA – E-NAVIGATION. P. I
Yu. I. Bazarov, V. A. Atamanyuk, A. G. Rodionov
It is considered the E-Navigation Concept, developed by IMO and IALA for marine vessels with purpose to improve security and safety of navigation at sea, named its components and proposed the ways of implementations. The architecture of shipborne navigation equipment is described. The core of the equipment is multi-system multichannel GNSS receiver. Maritime Service Portfolios for navigation provision and safety at sea of vessels is described. Receiver of the signal of terrestrial radionavigation system may be included in composition. The necessity of satellite VHF communication improvement is shown (VDES – VHF Data Exchange System) to provide transmission of constantly increasing volume of information in quasireal time scale. Status and perspectives of e-Navigation («road
map») in Russiaare described.
Keywords: AIS, CDMA, FDMA, GLONASS, GNSS, GPS, IALA, IMO, marine differential subsystem, РРР, user equipment, RTK, VHF.
IMPROVEMENT OF ESTIMATION METHODS OF CHARACTERISTICS
OF STRAPDOWN INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS AT FLIGHT TESTS
- G. Kharin, I. A. Kopylov, V. A. Kopelovich, A. F. Yakushev, A. Y. Makarova
The article presents the results of the research aimed at creating effective methods and means of assessment of the strap down of inertial navigation systems (SINS) on the basis of complex use of the results of mathematical and seminatural modeling of the system work, flight tests on the flying laboratories and on experimental aircraft. The complex technology of the SINS errors analysis is based on the methods of optimum information processing, factorial analysis of SINS large errors, statistical modeling SINS errors with the use of the Monte Carlo method with the confirmation of statistical uniformity of materials. It is only the independent channel integrated with the BINS navigation satellite system that is considered. New and existing methods and means of SINS characteristics assessment have been respectively developed and enhanced in order to issue recommendations concerning the increase of their precision characteristics. On the basis of the existing «Etalon» program complex program complexes «Etalon-XXI» and «Etalon-MK» have been developed. The perspective technology of working off at all test stages including SINS certified flight tests has been created. The developed technology will allow to increase informational content of the characteristics analysis, to reduce terms and cost of flight tests and SINS certification. Application of the developed methods and means is shown on the examples of the assessment of the BIMS-T inertial and satellite systems at the Il-76MD flying laboratory (FL) and the plane Il-96-300, LINS-100RS at the maneuverable MiG-29UB flying laboratory.
Keywords: estimation methods, flight tests, Monte Carlo SINS, strapdown inertial navigation systems.
STAR TRACKER NOISE EQUIVALENT ANGLE FILTRATION IN SATELLITE ON-BOARD ATTITUDE AND ORBIT CONTROL SYSTEM
- V. Ryabogin
In nowadays star trackers (ST) are an important part of satellite on-board attitude and orbit control systems (AOCS). Measurement errors define ST accuracy. ST measurement errors like an bias, low frequency error and relativistic error, in some cases could be not considered, because this ST errors could be minimized by ST
and target equipment adjustment and mission preparation. This paper consists the way of ST noise equivalent angle (NEA) filtration. The algorithm isn»t based any classic filtration method and provides NEA filtration without delays. The algorithm via virtual star tracker (VST) synthesis by two ST measurements processing provides ST NEA guarantied filtration. Suggested algorithm with simple mathematical operations allows to reduce around boresight axis NEA to level boresight axis direction NEA without need of sufficient computing capability of AOCS. An satellite AOCS could be design like uniformly precise with application of suggested algorithm without any additional NEA filtration.
Keywords: filtration, measurements fusion, satellite on-board control system, satellite, spacecraft, star tracker, virtual star tracker, uniformly precise attitude.
EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING COPETITIVE DOMESTIC PRECISE NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT
- L. Korneyev, T. Yu. Dubinko, V. V. Yegorov
The paper presets the outcome of the development of competitive national equipment for precise navigation, including the estimates of manufacture locations in RF, user expenses, possible applications in tachgraphs, in precise agriculture, in ERA-GLONASS. Drawbacks of using global satellite navigation systems (GNSS) are shown and information is given about the development of a precise Local Navigation System (LNS) capable of using all the advantages of a navigation signal with robust interference immunity.
Keywords: GNSS, localization, LNS, navigation, UNE, receiver, precision agriculture, price, ERA-GLONASS.
XXI CENTURY – NAVIGATION AT SEA –E-NAVIGATION. P. II
Yu. I. Bazarov, V. A. Atamanyuk, A. G. Rodionov
It is considered the E-Navigation Concept, developed by IMO and IALA for marine vessels with purpose to improve security and safety of navigation at sea, named its components and proposed the ways of implementations. The architecture of shipborne navigation equipment is described. The core of the equipment is multi-system multichannel GNSS receiver. Maritime Service Portfolios for navigation provision and safety at sea of vessels is described. Receiver of the signal of terrestrial radionavigation system may be included in composition. The necessity of satellite VHF communication improvement is shown to provide transmission of constantly increasing volume of information in quasireal time scale. Status and perspectives of e-Navigation («road map») in Russia are described.
Keywords: AIS, CDMA, FDMA, GLONASS, GNSS, GPS, IALA, IMO, marine differential subsystem, РРР, user equipment, RTK, VHF.
SOME RESULTS OF THE RUSSIAN-CHINESE EXPERIMENT ON NAVIGATION STUDIES USING THE GLONASS, BEIDOU AND GPS NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS IN THE SILK ROAD PROJECT
- N. Karutin, A. A. Bermishev, D. V. Vinderskikh, V. L. Lapshin
The results of an experiment on the study of navigation issues using the GLONASS, Beidou and GPS navigation systems in the Silk Road project on the Moscow-Novosibirsk highway are considered. Estimates of the quality of satellite
navigation based on the use of signals from global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), the results of testing some samples of the navigation equipment of the consumer operating using various GNSS, assessing the efficiency of using the information of the Russian system of differential correction and monitoring and assessing the availability of cellular communications in this transport corridor.
Keywords: Beidou, GLONASS, GPS, differential correction and monitoring system, MIDL, navigation equipment of the consumer.
INTEGRATION OF DISTRIBUTED INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS BUILT AROUND FIBER-OPTIC AND MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SENSORS
- V. Chernodarov, A. P. Patrikeev, S. A. Ivanov, I. I. Merkulova
Basic features of the integration of inertial and satellite navigation systems (ISNS), which are built around fiber-optic and microelectromechanical sensors are considered. New properties of the above systems, which are connected with their unification into a single structure are justified. The possibility for the raising of both their accuracy characteristics and their reliability characteristics is shown. The proposed approaches to the realization of such a possibility for the ISNS rely on the method of vector matching and Kalman filtering mathematical apparatus. The
studies conducted corroborate the fact that it is possible and expedient to apply the proposed technology to improve accuracy characteristics of the combined ISNS.
Keywords: fiber-optic sensors, inertial navigation systems, micromechanical sensors, system integration.
NAVIGATION SIGNAL TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR DIFFERENTIAL
CORRECTIONS MEASUREMENT USING THE KALMAN FILTER
The paper describes the navigation signal tracking algorithm for differential corrections measurement using the Kalman filter, and presents the results of mathematical modeling of the proposed algorithm.
Keywords: GLONASS, GNSS, digital signal processing, Kalman filter, signal tracking.
GLONASS/GPS MOPS: DEVELOPMENT COMPLETION AND STATEMENT
- V. Silin
In the article process of development and the approval in 2017 of the international industrial standard on the minimum operational characteristics for the airborne GLONASS/GPS aviation receiver operating on L1 frequency band is described.
Keywords: civil aviation, GLONASS, GPS, navigation, satellite standards.
RUSSIAN NAVIGATION AND INFORMATION SATELLITE SYSTEM
- Dvorkin, V. V. Kurshin, A. A. Povalyaev, A. A. Kotyakhov
The paper presents the «Russian Navigation and Information Satellite System» project. This system generates signals that contain navigational data on its ground segment and transmits them to users with the help of data relay satellites. Besides the navigational data contained in the signal, the system also relays communicational messages. The authors analyze the premises of this system’s creation, put forward an approximate composition, signal structures and frequency bands for this system.
Keywords: GLONASS, GNSS, GPS, combination of navigation and communication, navigation and information satellite system, navigation satellite system, RNISS, SBAS
POTENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OPTIMAL FILTERING
FOR THE NAVIGATION SIGNAL CARRIER TRACKING SYSTEMS
This article deals with optimal filtering algorithms for the navigation signal carrier tracking systems. Besides recursive filtering and extrapolation, the optimal filtering contains smoothing which could increase the chances of obtaining the best possible result not only for estimation accuracy but for noise-resistance as well. The paper includes derivation of potential characteristics of accuracy and noise-resistance of smoothing algorithms. In addition, some statistical modelling results are given in the article.
Keywords: optimal filtering, carrier tracking, optimal smoothing, noise-resistance
CURRENT STATE AND PERSPECTIVE DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT
OF RADIONAVIGATION SUPPORT FOR THE MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF RUSSIA
- Dyachenko, S. V. Antufyeva
The article provides information on advanced equipment designed in the interests of the MIA of Russia, determines directions of development of the navigation providing of the internal affairs bodies.
Keywords: GLONASS, directions of development, internal affairs bodies of the MIA of Russia, navigation equipment
THE APPROACH TO SYSTEM-AGGREGATIVE NAVIGATION SYNTHESIS
FOR AN AUTOMATIC MOVABLE OBJECT
- Baushev, L. V. Tananikina, V. I. Yakunin
The approach to the external (system-aggregate) design of navigation support for an automatic movable object is proposed. This approach is based on the methodology of the targeted processes effectiveness theory. The example is considered and expression for determining the values of the performance indicator, depending on the values of the parameters of the navigation system and the process of its application, is derived.
Keywords: external design efficiency, radionavigation system, system-aggregative synthesis
№ 2 2018
PRECISION NAVIGATION USING THE ASSISTANCE INFORMATION OF THE SYSTEM FOR HIGH-PRECISION DEFINITION OF GNSS EPHEMERIS AND TIME INFORMATION IN REAL TIME FOR CIVILIAN USERS
- F. Braginets, I. A. Burdin, V. M. Meshcheryakov, Y. G. Sukhoy
The technology of precision navigation using the global system for highly accurate determination of GNSSnavigation and ephemeris-time information in real time for civilian users (1st stage) is described. Assistance information for consumers at stage 1 provides high-precision absolute positioning of consumers with an error (standard deviation) of not more than 0.1 m in the operational mode with the initial initialization, and in a posteriori mode not more than 0.05 m. By 2020, in the second stage, it is planned to improve the precision, respectively, to 0.05 m in the operational mode and to 0.03 m in a posteriori mode. Improving the accuracy characteristics of the system is scheduled through the deployment of its own network of measuring stations on foreign territories, implementation of the high-precision absolute positioning technology, creation of samples of navigation equipment of consumers with specified characteristics, implementation of the delivery of assistance data to consumers through space communication channels.
Keywords: accuracy of ephemeris-time information, global network of measuring stations, global navigation satellite systems, global system for precision navigation in real time, precise point positioning.
SPECIAL FEATURES OF SIMULATION OF GNSS NAVIGATION FIELD IN AN ANECHOIC CHAMBER
А. Frolov, A. Kaverin, V. Pudlovskiy, Yu. Butich
The authors of the article consider the application features of semi-field testing of GNSS navigation field for estimation of accuracy characteristics of anti-jamming GNSS receivers and GNSS attitude reference systems. The requirements for the simulation scenarios needed for an anechoic chamber are set. The estimation of the systematic error in measuring of the carrier phase differences is presented due to the effect of the «proximity» of the signal emitter in the chamber, which affects the accuracy of the attitude determination in the testing of the attitude reference systems.
Keywords: anechoic chamber, anti-jamming, attitude reference system, global navigation satellite systems, GNSS receiver, navigation equipment, semi-field test.
REVIEW AND ANALYSIS OF THE LINES OF DEVELOPMENT OF STRAPDOWN INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS ON THE BASIS OF HEMISPHERICAL RESONATOR GYROSCOPES
- Ye. Perelyaev
The article presents an analytical review of the main lines of design and development of hemispherical resonator gyroscopes (HRG), strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINS), and position reference systems based on HRG. The authors analyze the studies of head researchers at Delco Electronics (Northrop Grumman afterwards), USA, Sagem (Safran afterwards), France, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA, and of other Russian and foreign researchers and developers.
Keywords: angular velocity sensor, AVS, gyro, hemispherical resonator gyroscope, HRG, navigation, SINS, standing wave.
EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF UNDERWATER WORKS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED UNDERWATER VEHICLES WITH INTEGRATED NAVIGATION SYSTEM
- S. Amiragov, D. A. Antonov, L. A. Kolganov, E. L. Chekhov, I. A. Shavirin
The article gives a review of the role that autonomous unmanned underwater vehicles (AUUV) with integrated navigation systems play in the development of the ocean. Performance specifications of AUUV, designed by the Experimental Design Bureau of Oceanological Engineering, similar domestically produced vehicles, and the factors that determine the advantage of using it in comparison with traditional systems are presented. Possible ways of AUUV application are suggested using an example of mapping tasks and pipeline condition inspection. The composition and structure of integrated navigation system, as well as that of integrated information processing algorithms, are suggested.
Keywords: application, autonomous, AUUV, mapping, inspection, integrated navigation system, underwater, vehicles.
sinGBOC SIGNALS AND cosGBOC SIGNALS IN NEW-GENERATION SATELLITE RADIO NAVIGATION SYSTEMS. P. 1
- S. Yarlykov
The formation and structure of the modulation function (MF) of sinGBOC signals (sine generalized BOC signals) and cosGBOC signals (cosine generalized BOC signals) of promising satellite radio navigation systems, such, for example, as Galileo (EU), Global Positioning System (GPS) (USA), and BeiDou (China), are estimated. Analytical expressions for the spectral function and power spectral density of the single component of the MF of sinGBOC signals and cosGBOC signals at different pulse multiplicity coefficients NR, where NR = 2, 4, 6, …, and different duty cycles of ρ, where ρ [0, 1], are obtained. Based on the obtained general formulas for the sinGBOC signals and cosGBOC signals, spectra are analyzed in important special cases: sinBOC signals, cosBOC signals and BPSK signals. The properties of these power spectral densities are discussed.
Keywords: BOC signal, GBOC signal, modulating function, spectrum function, power spectrum density, satellite radio navigation system, GLONASS, Galileo, GPS, BeiDou.
PRECISE POINT POSITIONING WITH SDCM APPLICATION
- G. Sernov, V. Ye. Vovasov
At present time, in the challenges that require high precision positioning the methods of absolute high-precision navigation sightings using the carrier and envelope phase of SV radio signals (Precise Point Positioning, PPP) are actively applied. The PPP algorithms were adapted for the application of information transmitted by the SDCM augmentation system at the JSC «Russian Space Systems». The difference of SDCM from the similar systems such as WAAS, EGNOS, GAGAN lies in the transfer of corrective information for the GLONASS SV. Experimental evaluation of precision positioning according to the SDCM information was carried out in full-scale using the navigation equipment with the application algorithms of wide-area corrective information in PPP solution program. The proposed program showed good performance in static tests, in dynamic tests it showed a certain advance compared to SDCM. Further improvement of the program is required for more effective application of PPP in dynamic tests.
Keywords: GLONASS, high precision positioning with PPP, PPP, Precise Point Positioning, wide-area augmentation systems.
THE PERFECTION OF THE SYSTEMS AND THE EQUIPMENT FOR THE APPROACH OF HIGHLY-MANEUVERABLE GENERATIONS 4++ AND 5 AIRCRAFTS
Yu. T. Krivoruchko, Yu. N. Muzelin, B. V. Ponomarenko
The article describes the perfection of approach systems and equipment of highly-maneuverable generations 4++ and 5 aircrafts on aerodromes of various categories and purposes on the basis of integrated on-board navigation and approach complexes (BNAC).
Keywords: approach, BNAC, highly-maneuverable aircrafts, specialized digital computer, virtual radio beacon.
THE CURRENT STATUS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OUTLOOK OF GLONASS MARINE DIFFERENTIAL SUBSYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN NAVY
- A. Speransky
The article reviews the current status and the development outlook of GLONASS Marine Differential Subsystem (MDSS) of the Russian Navy that is necessary for navigation and hydrographic vessel support and maritime safety. The information on the coverage areas, location, and basic characteristics of control stations for the existing and future local MDSSs is given.
Keywords: control station, GLONASS, GNSS, marine differential subsystem, marine, MDSS.
№ 4 2018
sinGBOC SIGNALS AND cosGBOC SIGNALS IN NEW-GENERATION SATELLITE RADIO NAVIGATION SYSTEMS. P. 2
- S. Yarlykov
The formation and structure of the modulation function (MF) of sinGBOC signals (sine generalized BOC signals) and cosGBOC signals (cosine generalized BOC signals) of promising satellite radio-navigation systems, such as, for example, Galileo (European Union), global positioning system (GPS) (USA), and BeiDou (China), are estimated. Analytical expressions for the spectral function and power spectral density of the single component of the MF of sinGBOC signals and cosGBOC signals at different pulse multiplicity coefficients NR, where NR = 2, 4, 6, …, and different duty cycles ρ, where ρ [0, 1], are obtained. Based on the obtained general formulas for the sinGBOC signals and cosGBOC signals, spectra are analyzed in important special cases: sinBOC signals, cosBOC signals and BPSK signals. The properties of these power spectral densities are discussed.
Keywords: BOC signal, GBOC signal, modulating function, spectrum function, power spectrum density, satellite radio navigation system, GLONASS, Galileo, GPS, BeiDou.
RADIO NAVIGATION GROUND SYSTEMS ACCURACY IMPROVEMENT USING THE METHOD OF NAVIGATION PARAMETERS CORRECTION. THE RESULTS OF FLIGHT DATA STATISTICAL PROCESSING
- V. Nemchenko, A. V. Trushin
In the article the method of improving pulse-phase radio navigation system positioning accuracy using navigation parameters correction, consisting in corrections input on radio wave propagation, is estimated experimentally based on the results of statistical processing.
Keywords: improvement, corrections, wave propagation, redundancy, Scorpion, Chayka, eLoran, Loran.
CONSTRUCTION CHARACTERISTICS AND TECHICAL SPECIFICATION OF NEW RADAR APPROACH CONTROL PRL-27C
- A. Ershov, Yu. T. Krivoruchko, Ye. A. Sinitsyn
The article describes construction characteristics and technical specification of new radar approach control PRL-27C that uses fixed arrays with frequency beam swinging and monopulse signal processing.
Keywords: frequency beam swinging, monopulse signal processing, PRL, radar approach control.
ON THE POSSIBILITY OF IMPLEMENTATION OF UNMANNED PASSENGER VEHICLES ON PUBLIC TRANSPORT ROUTES USING BUS RAPID TRANSIT TECHNOLOGIES AND SATELLITE NAVIGATION
- N. Bogumil, M. J. Duque Sarango
The article contains an analysis of the possibilities of using unmanned vehicles in urban passenger transport based on the use of satellite navigation technologies and the organization of transportation on the Bus Rapid Transit system. Based on the targeted approach, the prospects of this approach are shown. The example of the telematics equipment of the public transport vehicle with two-modal control – automatic and manual is shown.
Keywords: bus rapid transit, satellite navigation, telematics equipment, unmanned vehicles, urban passenger transport.
GROUND-BASED RADIO NAVIGATION SYSTEM WITH MULTISTAGE FREQUENCY MODULATION
- Ye. Kinkulkin
At present, it is generally accepted that in addition to global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) there should be a backup long-range coordinate-time support system complementary to GNSS. There are two types of such systems: pulse-phase radio navigation system (PPRNS) and radio navigation systems with multistage frequency modulation (MFMRNS). Such well-known systems as Loran-C, Tropic-2 (Chayka) are examples of PPRNS. The principle of operation of the MFMRNS, an example of which is Mars-75 system, on the other hand, is known to a small range of specialists only. The article presents a brief history of the creation of the MFMRNS, explains how it works and outlines the opportunities in case of further use of the system. A brief description of the frequency modulation signals in systems with time detection module is given; some issues of the technical implementation of transmitting radio stations with MFM, as well as MFM consumer equipment are discussed, an example of the algorithm that produces «synthesized pulse» image signal is given. The article shows the ways pseudo-ranges are set up in the device in the conditions of spatial waves, as well as the ways of processing MFMRNS and PPRNS signals in the same consumer equipment, and the ways consumer equipment can function in radio navigation network with PPRNS and MFM transmitting stations.
Keywords: global navigation satellite system, GNSS, pulse-phase radio navigation system (PPRNS), Mars-75, pseudo-range, radio navigation system, RNS, multistage frequency modulation, MFM, Chay
No. 1 2020
NEW RUSSIAN INITIATIVES AT THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEMS
- V. Silin
Some new Russian initiatives at the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG) at the United Nations (UN) activity within the working group S «Standards, Signals and Services» in 2019 are considered.
Keywords: satellite navigation, navigation systems, GNSS interoperability and compatibility
METHODS OF ALTITUDE MEASUREMENT IN PSEUDO-SATELLITE AIRCRAFT LANDING SYSTEMS
- N. Korotonoshko
The issues of altitude measurement in pseudo-satellite aircraft landing systems are discussed. The aircraft altitude relative to the runway is the most critical parameter ensuring a safe landing of the aircraft. In landing systems categorized by the ICAO, direct determination of altitude coordinates with GNSS data cannot provide the necessary landing accuracy. For this reason, ICAO requires the use of autonomous altimeters, radio or barometric, for such operations. The article describes possible methods of technical implementation of such solutions.
Keywords: pseudo-satellites, aircraft landing, barometric altimeters, radio altimeters, GNSS, GLONASS
APPLICATION Of THE INTEGRATED SYSTEM BASED ON ON-BOARD TRAJECTORY MANAGEMENT COMPLEX FOR ENSURING CERTIFICATION FLIGHT TESTS Of NAVIGATION INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMS AND COMPLEXES Of CIVIL AVIATION AIRCRAFT
- G. Kharin, O. S. Mordvinov, I. A. Kopylov, V. A. Kopelovich, V. R. Kozhurin, A. F. Yakushev, V. G. Polikarpov, A. Y. Makarova, N. A. Soin, V. M. Tsarev
The results of applying the integrated system of ensuring certification flight tests of navigation systems and complexes of civil aviation aircraft are presented. The system is constructed on the basis of On-Board Trajectory Management Complex (OTMC) and designed to evaluate and analyze characteristics of flight and navigation and other aircraft equipment during flight tests when flying in the air traffic management system constructed on CNS / ATM technologies with Performance-based Navigation (PBN) functions. The integrated system of ensuring flight tests of avionics includes: onboard trajectory measurements complex, basic and mobile control stations, flying laboratories, test support stands, computer network, automated workplaces and program software of flight test processing and information analysis. The system is maintained and operated by engineering and technical personnel qualified for all systems and complexes of the flight instrumentation. Program software is created and approved to process and analyze flight test materials. The article illustrates the efficiency of application of the integrated system on the examples of certification ground and flight tests of the airplane Il-96-300 performed in connection with the Main changes: «Expansion of the expected conditions and hardware upgrade». The developed technologies provided carrying out and processing of flight test materials of practically all pilot and upgraded aircraft of the Russian Federation, and aircraft equipment of transport and maneuverable airplanes (over 12 000 flights).
Keywords: integrated test support system, evaluation methods, certification tests, avionics, flight navigation equipment, communication, navigation, observation, air traffic organization, zone navigation system, required navigation characteristic
INCREASING THE LEVEL OF COMFORT OF PUBLIC PASSENGER TRANSPORT BY MONITORING IN-CAR TEMPERATURE
- V. Avanyants, I. V. Konin
Due to the increased level of passenger traffic in metropolitan cities, special attention is paid to ensuring the quality standard of passenger transportation. In this regard, the primary task of enterprises engaged in passenger transportation is to organize the process of automation of control and accounting of the transportation. One of these solutions is an automated system for monitoring the interior temperature (AIS MW) developed for the leading transport company in Europe. AIS MW is designed to automate processes related to the monitoring of intra-cabin temperature in the cabin of the vehicle and provide comfortable climatic conditions on the routes of public passenger transport. For this purpose, vehicles are equipped with temperature sensors that measure the temperature of the environment in the vehicle cabin and in the driver»s cabin. The temperature sensors are connected to the on-Board unit, which, along with the navigation data, transmits the temperature sensor readings to automated information system. Sensor readings are processed with the help of the algorithms laid down in the AIS MW.
Keywords: temperature sensor, monitoring, software product, automated information system.
No 2 2020
REGULATORY AND LEGAL SUPPORT FOR THE CERTIFICATION OF COMPONENTS AND SERVICES OF GLONASS AND GLONASS AS A WHOLE
- N. Karutin, L. V. Yurasova, M. A. Kondrashin, O. Y. Arsenov, I. S. Novikov, A. A. Eryshev, V. D. Pavlov, I. V. Kozlov, G. V. Abramenkov, V. M. Tsarev
The issues of the regulatory and legal support for the certification of services provided by the GLObal NAvigation Sattelite System (GLONASS), as well as its components and the system as a whole, are considered. A set of tools for GLONASS certification under development needed to provide technical implementation of GLONASS certification (services, components, and the system as a whole) is described.
Keywords: GLONASS certification, technical regulation of the Customs Union, set of tools for GLONASS certification, voluntary certification system, conformity-assessment system of the State Space Corporation ROSCOSMOS
AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION IN SPACE BY PULSAR EMISSION. FIRST RESULTS
- D. Levchenko
The article gives a brief overview of the results and objectives of work carried out by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), European Space Administration (ESA) and representatives of People’s Republic of China for the purpose of providing autonomous navigation of spacecraft by pulsar emission.
Keywords: autonomous navigation in space, pulsar emission, NICER / SEXTANT program, XPANV-1 spacecraft, NAVISP program, PulChron system
PRINCIPLES AND WAYS OF ENSURING PERSONAL NAVIGATION IN SURFACE BUILDINGS AND UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES
- N. Korotonoshko
The methods of personal navigation in surface buildings and structures, as well as in underground objects and natural formations in which there is no access to satellite radio navigation signals, are analyzed. The ways of designing navigation systems and devices using the GLONASS pseudo-satellites, precision barometric altimeters and inertial navigators are explained. The solutions proposed in the article are mainly based on the use of existing technical means.
Keywords: pseudo-satellites, personal navigation, GLONASS, inertial navigation systems, barometric Altimeters
AN EXPERIMENTAL SAMPLE OF ONBOARD INTELLECTUAL AIRCRAFT CREW DECISIONS SUPPORT SYSTEM
- F. Yakushev, A. V. Yasenok, E. G. Harin, I. A. Kopylov, V. A. Kopelovich, V. P. Bolin
The article presents the results of the research on creating and testing an experimental sample of intellectual crew decisions support system in special flight situations of civil aviation aircraft (ICDSS) on the basis of mathematical and semi-track modeling on the pilot bench complex of JSC «M. M. Gromov FRI» and flight tests on the flying laboratory Tu-154M). The system is designed to detect and analyze special situations at all stages of flight and to generate messages to the crew about necessary actions to ensure safe way out of a special situation or to reduce its consequences. During bench testing and flight studies of the ICDSS experimental sample, the functioning of hardware, algorithmic and software-mathematical support of the system was checked, the obtained results were analyzed from the point of view of completeness and reliability of special situations» control algorithms. The performed research has shown that the use of expert systems in the aircraft»s on-board equipment, which form a warning about the approach of a special situation and a hint to the crew in the form of recommendations on the first most rational actions to prevent dangerous development of the situation, allows for significantly reducing the number of aviation accidents. The results can be used in the development of safety systems for civil aviation aircraft.
Keywords: intellectual system, flight safety, crew decisions support, special situation, flight and navigation equipment, crew errors, equipment failure, evaluation methods, mathematical and semi-track modeling, flight tests
THE NEED FOR APPLICATION OF SATELLITE DIFFERENTIAL CORRECTIONS (PSEUDO-SATELLITES) ON THE BASIS OF UNMANNED HELICOPTER TYPE AIRCRAFT IN AIRMOBILE STATIONS AVIATION
- P. Zubov
The areas of application of aeromobile stations of differential corrections for satellite navigation systems based on helicopter type unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in aviation are discussed. Suggestions are given for the use of such stations in various military conflicts.
Keywords: differential stations, helicopter-type UAVs, military aircraft, pseudo-satellite, satellite navigation systems, guidance system, accuracy, guided weapon
No 3 2020
SYNTHESIS AND ANALYSIS OF MULTI-FREQUENCY PHASE LOCK LOOP ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE IN GNSS RECEIVERS
- N. Karutin, V. N. Kharisov, A. V. Peltin, А. А. Kushnir
The article considers the synthesis of the multi-frequency phase lock loop algorithm with carrier phases joint tracking for a set of signals in different frequency ranges from one satellite. A quasi-analytical solution of such an algorithm is obtained, which significantly simplifies its implementation. The synthesized algorithm accuracy and interference resistance characteristics are analyzed.
Keywords: multi-frequency phase lock loop system, Global Navigation Satellite Systems, interference resistance
CURRENT STATE AND SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL FORECAST
OF THE PERSPECTIVES OF APPLICATION OF FOREIGN HEMISPHERICAL RESONATOR GYROS (ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF FOREIGN MATERIALS)
- E. Perelyaev
The hemispherical resonator gyro (HRG) is a unique measuring instrument in the practical application of new inertial sensors. Small-sized HRG of the well-known company Safran Electronics & Defense (France) on the basis of a miniature hemispherical quartz resonator («glass») is capable of satisfying all the requirements of any potential customer. According to the research conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA, USA), the parameters that were previously achievable using high-tech mechanical and optical technologies implemented in precision electrostatic, high-precision ring laser gyroscopes (RLG), and fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG), are now very successfully implemented with new inertial sensors such as HRG, which have a significantly higher reliability of the output data and much smaller dimensions. HRG provide high-accuracy navigation at lower cost of mass production and smaller dimensions than RLG or FOG.
Keywords: hemispherical resonator gyro (HRG), ring laser gyroscope (RLG), fiber optic gyroscope (FOG), inertial attitude sensors (IAS), inertial navigation systems (INS)
MINIMIZATION OF THE OVERALL MASS CHARACTERISTICS OF LIGHTING EQUIPMENT IN ORDER TO CREATE MOBILE SECTOR NAVIGATION SYSTEMS THROUGH THE USE OF DOMESTIC POWERFUL SUPERBRIGHT LEDS
- V. Vasiliev, A. I. Larushin
The article describes the use of powerful monochrome superbright LEDs in sector navigation systems for visual navigation. CREE LEDs with LEDIL optics and OPTEL LEDs are considered. The brightness distribution in the cross section of the light flux by the focal plane of the projection optical system of the emitters constituting the product is estimated. For domestic LEDs, compared with foreign LEDs, the brightness is increased 1.7 times due to a decrease in the cross-sectional area of the light flux determined by the LED design, while the volume of the optical unit is reduced by 6 times, which allows the creation of small-sized mobile complexes. The positive test results of the scientific and technical complexes «Aerooptika» on the «OPTEL» LEDs allow us to recommend them for navigating water and air transport at night and in daytime under simple and difficult weather conditions.
Keywords: powerful monochrome superbright LED, focal plane, projection optical system, frame window, luminous flux, brightness distribution, secondary optics
FORECASTING OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT VEHICLE’S OCCUPANCY
ON THE ROUTE BASED ON NAVIGATION AND OTHER TELEMATICS DATA PROCESSING
- N. Bogumil, V. M. Vlasov, M. J. Duque-Sarango, J. E. Kasimov
The article discusses a method for predicting the vehicle occupancy of urban passenger transport. One of the ways to solve the difficult transport situation of Russian megacities is to increase the attractiveness of urban passenger transport in the eyes of citizens. To do this, it is necessary to improve the quality of urban passenger transport. One of the most important indicators of the quality of transportation is the vehicle occupancy rate of the autobus. The social standard sets the norm for vehicle occupancy as the number of people per 1 sq. m of the cabin area. However, it is not enough to establish a standard; it must be monitored and observed. This problem can only be solved if we use real-time forecasting methods, by the results of which, the management system will, if necessary, take appropriate measures. In order to solve the observance of the established standard for vehicle occupancy of the autobus, it is necessary to create a methodology for predicting the vehicle occupancy, which will serve as a theoretical basis for the development of realtime forecasting software for vehicle occupancy on the route. The article describes the development of a methodology for predicting the vehicle occupancy of an autobus using the method of exponential smoothing, which allows predicting this factor with high accuracy.
Keywords: automated system for monitoring passenger flows, critical bus stop, method of exponential smoothing, social standard of transport services for the population, vehicle occupancy